Dear All,

As the manufacturing of PSC pipes are going on, we are going to deploy our experts for the shop inspection..

The subject is already discussed with CCE, n finalised in review meetings held before…

However, we have not received any RFI for the same manufacturing process, yet.

As CCE has instructed to deploy our manpower permanently for the total duration of manufacturing of PSC pipes, we are following the same shortly.

We are requesting the contractor to submit RFI, and their subsequent cooperation is expected…

Thanking You all..

When fluid flows!

The body force due to gravity, which is responsible for bedload movement, suspended load movement…. for flow of media!

A resistance to the change in inertia; viscosity, which plays opposite to the motion…

It is a fundamental necessity, that there must be a larger body force than the viscous one, for a fluid flow to happen!

When designing a gravity fed sewerage flow, we have to select the fluid depth and bed slope in such a way that, sufficient body force is produced to move the fluid with their particle loads…

If body force increases, velocity of particles increases with it, resulting a viscous force comes in to play!

So, while system design, we always should keep a margin of body force ahead of viscous force; but it should not be larger enough, that it would create energy loss and also result in irosion…

As body force is directly proportional to bed depth and bed slope, we have to choose the variables with respect to an economical point!

When calculating the viscous force in a flow, we must have a knowledge on particle sizes, velocity intended and coefficient of viscosity of the fluid…

Finally our design should match, on the prospects that, their is enough body force to drag against viscosity, and do not create an irosion!

We must consider that, flow may vary with time to time in municipal sewers!!!!

Shear stre$s; how it inhibits flow #inertia!

Do everyone count this critical variable, when designing day-2-day systems?

As direct stress signifies, the static pressure existing in a fluid flow, shear stress is a major concern, which depends mostly on direct stress and slope of conduit…in an open channel flow!

Reynolds number, which indicates the flow turbulence, depends on flow depth; severely affect shear stress profiles…

When designing a sewerage, we must consider, the limits of shear stress; which is critical to the bedload movement, responsible for self cleaning!

Shear is like a drag, which tends to carry #bedload with it…

Lower limit of shear, where bedload starts flowing; we should be concerned on the higher limit of stress, where irosion starts…

Another variable which has a great impact on shear stress required for self cleaning flow, I.e. specific weight of suspended load and bed load….particles may vary in nature, may be biological or sandy!

Designing a fLuid #flOw, how Navier Stokes defines a waY!

When turbulence happens, flow is affected in 3-dimensions. It is strenuous to predict the absolute velocity with respect to definite space in a definite time….

Yah, If flow goes unsteady, it z also obvious that, a defined location will see different flow velocities with time!

Viscosity, u may view it as a fluid friction…

Flow pattern changes with boundary characteristics; yup fluid goes in different ways, in smooth or coarse bed!

Compressibility is obvious to make more critical such fluid flow problems..,

Navier Stokes finds a way to get a solution, when partially differentiating those variables with time and position!

Poissueele’s work on fluid flow.. how much flow a pipe can t@ke!

We have that idea, that volume flow rate is directly proportional to cross sectional area of the conduit and the average velocity of fluid…

Obviously we have taken in to consideration of fluid viscosity.. 

However we don’t get a clear idea, how flow capacity varies with pressure!

That is, what poisueele’s equation gives the relation!

Flow rate is directly dependent on pressure; as pressure increases, increases flow rate in proportion.

Directly proportionate to the forth power of radius, it clearly indicates flow increases with the increase in area and resultant increase in velocity….

Yah this is clear that, velocity is more as the distance from conduit wall increases!  With effect increase in conduit area gives a higher velocity, more inertia to flow!

Fluid friction is a critical variable, which depends on viscosity and contact area; the equation derives a relation, how flow decreases with rise of viscosity and increasing length!